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24 May 2012 Near-infrared silicon, resonant cavity RC-GPD, and ROIC arrays
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Resonant cavity quantum efficiency enhancement for near-infrared (NIR) detection in silicon detectors has been extensively reported over the last several years. Cavity thickness uniformity has been achieved mainly by using silicon on insulator (SOI) as starting material. Though this approach yields excellent response uniformity, it lacks the flexibility of controlling the tuning wavelength and it is not suitable for processing in standard silicon CMOS technology. Silicon Geiger avalanche Photodiode (GPD) technology with its single-photon sensitivity and nanosecond integration time has seen accelerated development worldwide due to increased availability and lower cost of silicon processing. However, the technology of fabricating large GPD arrays is being developed at a slower pace, mainly due to the need to customize the readout circuitry (ROIC) to the application (counting, ranging or timing). We are developing the technology to fabricate single-photon, silicon GPD arrays in standard CMOS assembled in flip-chip with dedicated ROIC arrays and add resonant cavity enhancement (RC-GPD) to enhance their response to NIR photons. For manufacturability, processing cost, and process flexibility reasons, we implement the resonant cavity process at the end of the GPD+ROIC array fabrication. We have reviewed at the SPIE DSS 2011 conference the silicon RC-GPD array technology developed at aPeak and have pointed to the design and technological challenges to achieve uniform quantum efficiency response in NIR over large GPD arrays. In this paper, we present the progress on tuning the resonant cavity over large RC-GPD arrays as well as the functional validation of 32x32pixel ROICs designed to operate with such arrays. We also present the radiation hardness data of the silicon GPD array technology (legacy technology used for RC-GPD fabrication) to proton and neutron irradiation.
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Stefan Vasile, Ryan Murphy, Jerold Lipson, and M. Selim Ünlü "Near-infrared silicon, resonant cavity RC-GPD, and ROIC arrays", Proc. SPIE 8385, Sensors and Systems for Space Applications V, 838508 (24 May 2012);

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