25 May 2012 Development and human factors analysis of an augmented reality interface for multi-robot tele-operation and control
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This paper presents a seamlessly controlled human multi-robot system comprised of ground and aerial robots of semiautonomous nature for source localization tasks. The system combines augmented reality interfaces capabilities with human supervisor's ability to control multiple robots. The role of this human multi-robot interface is to allow an operator to control groups of heterogeneous robots in real time in a collaborative manner. It used advanced path planning algorithms to ensure obstacles are avoided and that the operators are free for higher-level tasks. Each robot knows the environment and obstacles and can automatically generate a collision-free path to any user-selected target. It displayed sensor information from each individual robot directly on the robot in the video view. In addition, a sensor data fused AR view is displayed which helped the users pin point source information or help the operator with the goals of the mission. The paper studies a preliminary Human Factors evaluation of this system in which several interface conditions are tested for source detection tasks. Results show that the novel Augmented Reality multi-robot control (Point-and-Go and Path Planning) reduced mission completion times compared to the traditional joystick control for target detection missions. Usability tests and operator workload analysis are also investigated.
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Sam Lee, Sam Lee, Nathan P. Lucas, Nathan P. Lucas, R. Darin Ellis, R. Darin Ellis, Abhilash Pandya, Abhilash Pandya, } "Development and human factors analysis of an augmented reality interface for multi-robot tele-operation and control", Proc. SPIE 8387, Unmanned Systems Technology XIV, 83870N (25 May 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.919751; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.919751

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