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17 May 2012 Combined use of backscattered and transmitted images in x-ray personnel screening systems
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Current aviation security relies heavily on personnel screening using X-ray backscatter systems or other advanced imaging technologies. Passenger privacy concerns and screening times can be reduced through the use of low-dose twosided X-ray backscatter (Bx) systems, which also have the ability to collect transmission (Tx) X-ray. Bx images reveal objects placed on the body, such as contraband and security threats, as well as anatomical features at or close to the surface, such as lungs cavities and bones. While the quality of the transmission images is lower than medical imagery due to the low X-ray dose, Tx images can be of significant value in interpreting features in the Bx images, such as lung cavities, which can cause false alarms in automated threat detection (ATD) algorithms. Here we demonstrate an ATD processing chain fusing both Tx and BX images. The approach employs automatically extracted fiducial points on the body and localized active contour methods to segments lungs in acquired Tx and Bx images. Additionally, we derive metrics from the Tx image can be related to the probability of observing internal body structure in the Bx image. The combined use of Tx and Bx data can enable improved overall system performance.
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B. Tracey, Markus Schiefele, Christopher Alvino, Eric Miller, and Omar Al-Kofani "Combined use of backscattered and transmitted images in x-ray personnel screening systems", Proc. SPIE 8392, Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition XXI, 839219 (17 May 2012);

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