Methods of generating N00N, M&N, linear combinations of M&N states as well as more complicated quantum
entangled and quantum hyper-entangled states will be considered. Quantum hyper-entanglement refers to quantum
entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, e.g. energy-time, polarization, orbital angular momentum, etc.
Internal noise and loss within the entanglement or hyper-entanglement generators and external noise and loss due to
atmospheric effects and detectors are modeled. Analysis related to the devices that generate these entangled or hyperentangled
states will be provided. The following will be derived: closed form expressions for wave function
normalization, wave function, density operator, reduced density operator, phase error bound, the symmetrized
logarithmic derivative, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Cramer-Rao lower bound, the relevant projection
operators and the related probability of detection expressions. Generation and detection of the entangled or hyperentangled
states will be considered. The entanglement generators will use linear and nonlinear optical devices.
Optimization criteria for the quantum states, generation and detection schemes and designs optimal with respect to the
criteria will be discussed. Applications of the generated states for producing super sensitivity and super resolution will
be discussed. The fundamental role of coincidence measurement for generating entanglement is included. Hyperentanglement
offers N times classical resolution, where N is a quantum number associated with the system.