The Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) project comprises a UK-based consortium developing active/adaptive micro-structured
optical arrays (MOAs). MOA devices are designed to focus X-rays using grazing incidence reflection through
consecutive aligned arrays of microscopic channels. Adaptability is achieved using a combination of piezoelectric
actuators, which bend the edges of the silicon chip, and a spider structure, which forms a series of levers connecting the
edges of the chip with the active area at the centre, effectively amplifying the bend radius.
The spider actuation concept, in combination with deep silicon etching stopped close to the surface, can also be used to
create deformable mirrors where the curvature and tip/tilt angles of the mirror can be controlled. Finite Element Analysis
(FEA) modelling, carried out for the optimization of the spider MOA device, indicates that deformable mirrors with
curvature varying from flat to 5cm ROC and control over the tip/tilt angles of the mirror of +/-3mrad could be achieved.
Test spider structures, manufactured using a Viscous Plastic Processing Process for the PZT piezoelectric actuators and a
single wet etch step using <111> planes in a (110) silicon wafer for both the silicon channels and the spider structure,
have been bent to a radius of curvature smaller than 5 cm.
This paper evaluates the spider MOA's concept as a means to achieve deformable mirrors with controllable ROC and
control over the tip/tilt angles. FEA modelling results are compared with obtained characterization data of prototype
structures. Finally, manufacturing and integration methods and design characteristics of the device, such its scalability,
are also discussed.