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4 May 2012 Engineering quantum communication systems
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Quantum communications can provide almost perfect security through the use of quantum laws to detect any possible leak of information. We discuss critical issues in the implementation of quantum communication systems over installed optical fibers. We use stimulated four-wave mixing to generate single photons inside optical fibers, and by tuning the separation between the pump and the signal we adjust the average number of photons per pulse. We report measurements of the source statistics and show that it goes from a thermal to Poisson distribution with the increase of the pump power. We generate entangled photons pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing. We report results for different type of fibers to approach the maximum value of the Bell inequality. We model the impact of polarization rotation, attenuation and Raman scattering and present optimum configurations to increase the degree of entanglement. We encode information in the photons polarization and assess the use of wavelength and time division multiplexing based control systems to compensate for the random rotation of the polarization during transmission. We show that time division multiplexing systems provide a more robust solution considering the values of PMD of nowadays installed fibers. We evaluate the impact on the quantum channel of co-propagating classical channels, and present guidelines for adding quantum channels to installed WDM optical communication systems without strongly penalizing the performance of the quantum channel. We discuss the process of retrieving information from the photons polarization. We identify the major impairments that limit the speed and distance of the quantum channel. Finally, we model theoretically the QBER and present results of an experimental performance assessment of the system quality through QBER measurements.
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Armando N. Pinto, Álvaro J. Almeida, Nuno A. Silva, Nelson J. Muga, and Luis M. Martins "Engineering quantum communication systems", Proc. SPIE 8440, Quantum Optics II, 84400B (4 May 2012);

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