This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 8483 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction (if any), and the Conference Committee listing.
During the Second World War the importance of utilizing detection devices capable of operating in the infrared portion
of the electromagnetic spectrum was firmly established. Up until that time, laboriously constructed tables for blackbody
radiation needed to be used in calculations involving the amount of radiation radiated within a given spectral region or for
other related radiometric quantities. To rapidly achieve reasonably accurate calculations of such radiometric quantities, a
blackbody radiation calculator was devised in slide rule form first in Germany in 1944 and soon after in England and the
United States. In the immediate decades after its introduction, the radiation slide rule was widely adopted and recognized
as a useful and important tool for engineers and scientists working in the infrared field. It reached its pinnacle in the
United States in 1970 in a rule introduced by Electro Optical Industries, Inc. With the onset in the latter half of the
1970s of affordable, hand-held electronic calculators, the impending demise of the radiation slide rule was evident. No
longer the calculational device of choice, the radiation slide rule all but disappeared within a few short years. Although
today blackbody radiation calculations can be readily accomplished using anything from a programmable pocket calculator
upwards, with each device making use of a wide variety of numerical approximations to the integral of Planck’s function,
radiation slide rules were in the early decades of infrared technology the definitive “workhorse” for those involved in
infrared systems design and engineering. This paper presents a historical development of radiation slide rules with many
versions being discussed.
Radiometry mistakes are made throughout industry and academia with many of them being a result of misapplication of fundamental principles. Since we are all, in one way or another, students of Professor Bill Wolfe, this paper continues his example to educate at every opportunity and mitigate propagation of these errors. Based on the author’s observations, the top “seven deadly” radiometry mistakes are described with explanations and examples of the proper applications and interjections of Bill’s teaching concepts and wit.
In this presentation selected applications from the fields of Radiometry and Scattering are mingled with personal
experiences to provide illumination upon William Wolfe’s teaching, mentorship, insights and wit. Professor Wolfe
served as the presenter’s dissertation advisor from 1979-1982, but occasional industry interactions before and after that
3-year period provided the author a unique before-during-after sampling of this industry leader, author and teacher of
Radiometry and applications of infrared technology to optical systems. The collection of selected topics begins with a
brief review of the contribution of Max Planck, specifically his discovery of the blackbody radiation law in 1900. The
assumption in Planck’s equation not only provided the foundation of Quantum Physics, but the venerable equation itself
today still serves as convenient basis for self-radiative source characterization in radiation transfer modeling for infrared
systems. Subsequent topics of a more personal experience nature will include a successful application example of an
advisor’s counsel; an insider’s life at the early days of Optical Sciences Annex; how history turned on an unlikely OSA
scatter paper presentation; social optical engineering observations; the BRDF and development of the first Arizona
computer-automated scatterometer; and a Swiss Army knife gift and metaphor. Via this review process, the author will
not only reinforce existing Wolfe paradigms, but perhaps add some unique colors to the Wolfe spectrum, illustrating
through one person’s perspective of how over the decades Professor Wolfe has positively influenced the optical
community in general, and one former Ph.D. student’s career in particular.
Professor Bill Wolfe was an exceptional mentor for his graduate students, and he made a major contribution to
the field of optical engineering by teaching the (largely ignored) principles of radiometry for over forty years. This
paper describes an extension of Bill’s work on surface scatter behavior and the application of the BRDF to practical
optical engineering problems. Most currently-available image analysis codes require the BRDF data as input in
order to calculate the image degradation from residual optical fabrication errors. This BRDF data is difficult to
measure and rarely available for short EUV wavelengths of interest. Due to a smooth-surface approximation, the
classical Rayleigh-Rice surface scatter theory cannot be used to calculate BRDFs from surface metrology data for
even slightly rough surfaces. The classical Beckmann-Kirchhoff theory has a paraxial limitation and only provides
a closed-form solution for Gaussian surfaces. Recognizing that surface scatter is a diffraction process, and by
utilizing sound radiometric principles, we first developed a linear systems theory of non-paraxial scalar diffraction
in which diffracted radiance is shift-invariant in direction cosine space. Since random rough surfaces are merely a
superposition of sinusoidal phase gratings, it was a straightforward extension of this non-paraxial scalar diffraction
theory to develop a unified surface scatter theory that is valid for moderately rough surfaces at arbitrary incident
and scattered angles. Finally, the above two steps are combined to yield a linear systems approach to modeling
image quality for systems suffering from a variety of image degradation mechanisms. A comparison of image
quality predictions with experimental results taken from on-orbit Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) data is presented.
Using a room-temperature FLIR infrared camera, we have developed an entire outreach program that allows students of
all ages the chance to "see" their world from 8-12 microns. It is a world seldom seen by the same person that, ironically,
has 12 megapixels of visual "high-def" in his or her shirt pocket. It is Bill Wolfe's world, and in his recognition we are
honored to share some of it with you.
Professor Wolfe has been my mentor and friend since 1965, even before I became one of his PhD students. In fact, the
development of my career in infrared technology was closely linked to Bill’s work, and would not have been possible
without him and his guidance.
I am a product of Professor William Wolfe’s making. He may not have had the "best" material to be creative with, but he still did more for me than I could have expected. We performed together many beyond state-of-the-art technical contracts in the pioneering days of optics. He gave his Research Associates a fairly free hand to find answers and was always there to participate when we needed him. He has been, and is, a career and lifelong friend to me. I further acknowledge the help and support that he has given to me even after I graduated. My sincerest thanks go out to Professor Bill Wolfe.
In 1990 Professor Wolfe after his SPIE presidency trekked the world, even making it as far as post-communist
Poland, to see (in the visible and maybe in infrared - who knows) the work of optical scientists hidden behind the iron
curtain. I am not sure if he was ready for how different that world was at this time, but for sure he was very inquisitive
and eager to learn about the nuances of Poland right after the fall of communism. He met, visited with and encouraged
young and old scientists from Poland, Russia, Hungary and Lithuania to add their expertise to the scientific
conversations happening in the West. His mission in Poland was to invite us all, and he was ready to help us achieve our
I was one of those he encouraged. This talk is my personal reflection of Professor Wolfe as an encouraging and
sometimes brave SPIE pioneer - a stranger in a strange land - and as an energetic, caring SPIE president, Optical
Sciences professor and human being.
Disclaimer: Professor Bill Wolfe’s contributions to the field of radiometry are well known and very well recognized.
This conference is a tribute to him. However, my paper is not on radiometry; rather, I wish to illustrate the adventurous,
caring and positive Bill Wolfe that helped me find my way to the American desert Southwest.
The three and a half years I spent as a member of the Infrared Group were transitional. Bill Wolfe was the nexus. Bill
played a role in getting me to Arizona and keeping me there. He helped me advance professionally and taught me how to think like a systems engineer. He played a central role in my effort to earn a PhD. And, he helped start me in SPIE. This paper contains my personal and honest reflections on the impact which Bill Wolfe has had on me.
Diagnostics in medicine plays a critical role in helping medical professionals deliver proper diagnostic decisions. Most samples in this trade are of the human origin and a great portion of methodologies practiced in biology labs is shared in clinical diagnostic laboratories as well. Most clinical tests are quantitative in nature and recent increase in interests in preventive medicine requires the determination of minimal concentration of target analyte: they exist in small quantities at the early stage of various diseases. Radiometry or the use of optical radiation is the most trusted and reliable means of converting biologic concentrations into quantitative physical quantities. Since optical energy is readily available in varying energies (or wavelengths), the appropriate combination of light and the sample absorption properties provides reliable information about the sample concentration through Beer-Lambert law to a decent precision. In this article, the commonly practiced techniques in clinical and biology labs are reviewed from the standpoint of radiometry.
Radiofrequency components such as antennas, transmission lines, phased arrays, frequency-selective surfaces,
reflectarrays and meanderline waveplates can be made to operate in the infrared using electron-beam lithography. Prof.
Wolfe’s visionary leadership in the rather unique niche of “academic infrared” has been a source of inspiration to me
throughout my career.
My former students and colleagues have had their say about their experiences with me. It is only
fair that I have the opportunity to reply, and as they say, extend and amplify my comments. I
hope these clarifications and amplifications are useful to the reader.