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15 October 2012 Characterization and identification of smoke plume for early forest fire detection
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Characterization and discrimination of fire smoke for a land-based early forest fire detection system are discussed. Preliminary results of several fire plume identification schemes applied to multispectral video data obtained from a number of controlled fire experiments are presented. The temporal, spectral, and spatial signatures of the fire are exploited. The methods discussed include: (1) range filtering followed by entropy filtering of the infrared (IR) video data, (2) dual range moving average differencing followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of IR video data, and (3) PCA of visible color video data followed by texture analysis and segmentation. The three schemes presented are tailored to detect the fire core, the heat plume, and the smoke, respectively.
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John Saghri, John Jacobs, Daniel Kohler, Tim Davenport, and Georges Moussa "Characterization and identification of smoke plume for early forest fire detection", Proc. SPIE 8499, Applications of Digital Image Processing XXXV, 84991J (15 October 2012);

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