19 October 2012 Profiling structured beams using injected aerosols
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Profiling structured beams produced by X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) is crucial to both maximizing signal intensity for weakly scattering targets and interpreting their scattering patterns. Earlier ablative imprint studies describe how to infer the X-ray beam profile from the damage that an attenuated beam inflicts on a substrate. However, the beams in-situ profile is not directly accessible with imprint studies because the damage profile could be different from the actual beam profile. On the other hand, although a Shack-Hartmann sensor is capable of in-situ profiling, its lenses may be quickly damaged at the intense focus of hard X-ray FEL beams. We describe a new approach that probes the in-situ morphology of the intense FEL focus. By studying the translations in diffraction patterns from an ensemble of randomly injected sub-micron latex spheres, we were able to determine the non-Gaussian nature of the intense FEL beam at the Linac Coherent Light Source (SLAC National Laboratory) near the FEL focus. We discuss an experimental application of such a beam-profiling technique, and the limitations we need to overcome before it can be widely applied.
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N. Duane Loh, N. Duane Loh, Dmitri Starodub, Dmitri Starodub, Lukas Lomb, Lukas Lomb, Christina Y. Hampton, Christina Y. Hampton, Andrew V. Martin, Andrew V. Martin, Raymond G. Sierra, Raymond G. Sierra, Anton Barty, Anton Barty, Andrew Aquila, Andrew Aquila, Joachim Schulz, Joachim Schulz, Jan Steinbrener, Jan Steinbrener, Robert L. Shoeman, Robert L. Shoeman, Stephan Kassemeyer, Stephan Kassemeyer, Christoph Bostedt, Christoph Bostedt, John Bozek, John Bozek, Sascha W. Epp, Sascha W. Epp, Benjamin Erk, Benjamin Erk, Robert Hartmann, Robert Hartmann, Daniel Rolles, Daniel Rolles, Artem Rudenko, Artem Rudenko, Benedikt Rudek, Benedikt Rudek, Lutz Foucar, Lutz Foucar, Nils Kimmel, Nils Kimmel, Georg Weidenspointner, Georg Weidenspointner, Günther Hauser, Günther Hauser, Peter Holl, Peter Holl, Emanuele Pedersoli, Emanuele Pedersoli, MengNing Liang, MengNing Liang, Mark S. Hunter, Mark S. Hunter, Lars Gumprecht, Lars Gumprecht, Nicola Coppola, Nicola Coppola, Cornelia Wunderer, Cornelia Wunderer, Heinz Graafsman, Heinz Graafsman, Filipe R. N. C. Maia, Filipe R. N. C. Maia, Tomas Ekeberg, Tomas Ekeberg, Max Hantke, Max Hantke, Holger Fleckenstein, Holger Fleckenstein, Helmut Hirsemann, Helmut Hirsemann, Karol Nass, Karol Nass, Thomas A. White, Thomas A. White, Herbert J. Tobias, Herbert J. Tobias, George R. Farquar, George R. Farquar, W. Henry Benner, W. Henry Benner, Stefan Hau-Riege, Stefan Hau-Riege, Christian Reich, Christian Reich, Andreas Hartmann, Andreas Hartmann, Heike Soltau, Heike Soltau, Stefano Marchesini, Stefano Marchesini, Sasa Bajt, Sasa Bajt, Miriam Barthelmess, Miriam Barthelmess, Lothar Strueder, Lothar Strueder, Joachim Ullrich, Joachim Ullrich, Philip Bucksbaum, Philip Bucksbaum, Keith O. Hodgson, Keith O. Hodgson, Mathias Frank, Mathias Frank, Ilme Schlichting, Ilme Schlichting, Henry N. Chapman, Henry N. Chapman, Michael J. Bogan, Michael J. Bogan, "Profiling structured beams using injected aerosols", Proc. SPIE 8504, X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers: Beam Diagnostics, Beamline Instrumentation, and Applications, 850403 (19 October 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.930075; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.930075

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