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30 October 2012 A first approach for digital representation and automated classification of toolmarks on locking cylinders using confocal laser microscopy
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An important part of criminalistic forensics is the analysis of toolmarks. Such toolmarks often consist of plenty of single striations, scratches and dents which can allow for conclusions in regards to the sequence of events or used tools. To receive qualified results with an automated analysis and contactless acquisition of such toolmarks, a detailed digital representation of these and their orientation as well as placing to each other is required. For marks of firearms and tools the desired result of an analysis is a conclusion whether or not a mark has been generated by a tool under suspicion. For toolmark analysis on locking cylinders, the aim is not an identification of the used tool but rather an identification of the opening method. The challenge of such an identification is that a one-to-one comparison of two images is not sufficient - although two marked objects look completely different in regards to the specific location and shape of found marks they still can represent a sample for the identical opening method. This paper provides the first approach for modelling toolmarks on lock pins and takes into consideration the different requirements necessary to generate a detailed and interpretable digital representation of these traces. These requirements are ’detail’, i.e. adequate features which allow for a suitable representation and interpretation of single marks, ’meta detail’, i.e. adequate representation of the context and connection between all marks and ’distinctiveness’, i.e. the possibility to reliably distinguish different sample types by the according model. The model is evaluated with a set of 15 physical samples (resulting in 675 digital scans) of lock pins from cylinders opened with different opening methods, contactlessly scanned with a confocal laser microscope. The presented results suggest a high suitability for the aspired purpose of opening method determination.
© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Eric Clausing, Christian Kraetzer, Jana Dittmann, and Claus Vielhauer "A first approach for digital representation and automated classification of toolmarks on locking cylinders using confocal laser microscopy", Proc. SPIE 8546, Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting, and Defence VIII, 854609 (30 October 2012);

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