It has been demonstrated experimentally that pulsed pumping can significantly improve the thermal management in an optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser, and the output power of semiconductor disk lasers under pulsed pumping can be upgraded to times of those under continuous pumping. This paper presents numerical analysis of the thermal effects of pulsed pumping in semiconductor disk lasers, so to theoretically disclose the details of the thermal processes of pulsed pumping. In the simulation, the parabolic heat conduction equation, which is widely employed to describe the transient thermal transfer processes, is solved under cylindrical coordinates by the use of the finite element method, a periodic pump pulses train is assumed, and the maximum temperature rise in the multiple quantum wells active region is focused. The influences of the duty cycle, the repetition rate, and the pulse width of the pump pulses on the maximum temperature rise are investigated, and the results are compared with the case of continuous-wave pumping. Some simulation results are compared with reported data, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experiments.