20 November 2012 High performance silicon optical modulators
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Abstract
In this work we present results from high performance silicon optical modulators produced within the two largest silicon photonics projects in Europe; UK Silicon Photonics (UKSP) and HELIOS. Two conventional MZI based optical modulators featuring novel self-aligned fabrication processes are presented. The first is based in 400nm overlayer SOI and demonstrates 40Gbit/s modulation with the same extinction ratio for both TE and TM polarisations, which relaxes coupling requirements to the device. The second design is based in 220nm SOI and demonstrates 40Gbits/s modulation with a 10dB extinction ratio as well modulation at 50Gbit/s for the first time. A ring resonator based optical modulator, featuring FIB error correction is presented. 40Gbit/s, 32fJ/bit operation is also shown from this device which has a 6um radius. Further to this slow light enhancement of the modulation effect is demonstrated through the use of both convention photonic crystal structures and corrugated waveguides. Fabricated conventional photonic crystal modulators have shown an enhancement factor of 8 over the fast light case. The corrugated waveguide device shows modulation efficiency down to 0.45V.cm compared to 2.2V.cm in the fast light case. 40Gbit/s modulation is demonstrated with a 3dB modulation depth from this device. Novel photonic crystal based cavity modulators are also demonstrated which offer the potential for low fibre to fibre loss. In this case preliminary modulation results at 1Gbit/s are demonstrated. Ge/SiGe Stark effect devices operating at 1300nm are presented. Finally an integrated transmitter featuring a III-V source and MZI modulator operating at 10Gbit/s is presented.
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G. T. Reed, G. T. Reed, D. J. Thomson, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, Y. Hu, N. Owens, N. Owens, K. Debnath, K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, T. F. Krauss, L. Lever, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, R. W. Kelsall, M. Myronov, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, D. R. Leadley, I. P. Marko, I. P. Marko, S. J. Sweeney, S. J. Sweeney, D. C. Cox, D. C. Cox, A. Brimont, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, P. Sanchis, G.-H. Duan, G.-H. Duan, A. Le Liepvre, A. Le Liepvre, C. Jany, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, M. Lamponi, D. Make, D. Make, F. Lelarge, F. Lelarge, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, D. Van Thourhout, S. Liu, S. Liu, X. Yang, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, P. Petropoulos, } "High performance silicon optical modulators", Proc. SPIE 8564, Nanophotonics and Micro/Nano Optics, 85640H (20 November 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.2001296; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2001296
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