25 March 2013 Mechanical indentation improves cerebral blood oxygenation signal quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during breath holding
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Abstract
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a well-known technique for non-invasively measuring cerebral blood oxygenation, and many studies have demonstrated that fNIRS signals can be related to cognitive function. However, the fNIRS signal is attenuated by the skin, while scalp blood content has been reported to influence cerebral oxygenation measurements. Mechanical indentation has been shown to increase light transmission through soft tissues by causing interstitial water and blood flow away from the compressed region. To study the effects of indentation on fNIRS, a commercial fNIRS system with 16 emitter/detector pairs was used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation at 2 Hz. This device used diffuse reflectance at 730 nm and 850 nm to calculate deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin concentrations. A borosilicate glass hemisphere was epoxied over each sensor to function as both an indenter and a lens. After placing the indenter/sensor assembly on the forehead, a pair of plastic bands was placed on top of the fNIRS headband and strapped to the head to provide uniform pressure and tightened to approx. 15 N per strap. Cerebral blood oxygenation was recorded during a breath holding regime (15 second hold, 15 second rest, 6 cycles) in 4 human subjects both with and without the indenter array. Results showed that indentation increased raw signal intensity by 85 ± 35%, and that indentation increased amplitude of hemoglobin changes during breath cycles by 313% ± 105%. These results suggest that indentation improves sensing of cerebral blood oxygenation, and may potentially enable sensing of deeper brain tissues.
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William C. Vogt, Edwin Romero, Stephen M. LaConte, Christopher G. Rylander, "Mechanical indentation improves cerebral blood oxygenation signal quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during breath holding ", Proc. SPIE 8578, Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue X, 85782K (25 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2005076; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2005076
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