4 March 2013 Nanosensor aided photoacoustic measurement of pH in vivo
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Abstract
pH plays a critical role in many aspects of cell and tissues physiology. Lower pH is also a typical characteristic of arthritic joints and tumor tissues. These pH anomalies are also exploited in different drug delivery mechanisms. Here we present, a new method of pH sensing in vivo using spectroscopic photoacoustic measurements facilitated by pH sensitive nanosensors. The nanosensors consist of Seminaphtharhodafluor (SNARF), a pH sensitive dye, encapsulated in a specially designed polyacrylamide hydrogel matrix with a hydrophobic core. The photoacoustic intensity ratio between the excitation wavelengths of 585nm and 565nm increases in the pH range from 6.0 to 8.0 and is used to determine the pH of the local environment. These nanosensors are biodegradable, biocompatible, have a long plasma lifetime and can be targeted to any type of cells or tissues by surface modification using proper targeting moieties. The encapsulation of the dye prevents the interaction of the dye with proteins in plasma and also reduces the dye degradation. The SNARF dye in its free form loses 90% of its absorbance in presence of albumin, a protein found in abundance in plasma, and this has severely limited its adaptation to in vivo environments. In comparison, the SNARF nanosensors lose only 16% of their absorbance in the same environment. We employ these nanosensors to demonstrate the feasibility of pH sensing in vivo through photoacoustic measurements on a rat joint model.
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Aniruddha Ray, Aniruddha Ray, Hyung Ki Yoon, Hyung Ki Yoon, Raoul Kopelman, Raoul Kopelman, Xueding Wang, Xueding Wang, } "Nanosensor aided photoacoustic measurement of pH in vivo", Proc. SPIE 8581, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2013, 85810I (4 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2002918; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2002918
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