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26 February 2013 Nanoparticles in medicine: selected observations and experimental caveats
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Medically useful nanoparticles measure 1-100 nm in at least one dimension and are engineered and manufactured for specific diagnostic and treatment applications. Most nanoparticles used currently used in medicine are engineered and manufactured for specific purposes. Medically significant nanoparticles are composed of a 1) central core that is usually the medically active component, 2) one or more layers of organic or inorganic materials that forms a capsule (corona) covering the core and 3) an outer surface layer that interacts with the environment and/or targeted cells and tissues. Effective nanoparticle function in the living, intact animal or human requires electrochemical stability necessary to bypass the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and avoid filtration through the renal glomerulus into the urine. Nanoparticles are present in ” natural” as well as the manufacturing and clinical environments thus could pose as significant toxins because of their small sizes, their chemical and drug content and potential effect of causing long term disease including allergies, chronic inflammation and cancer. Currently published studies have focused on the effects of nanoparticles on cells in the extremely artificial environments of cell cultures. More clinical and preclinical studies documenting the short term and long term effects nanoparticle in the intact experimental animal and human are needed.
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Sharon Thomsen, John A. Pearce, Andrew Giustini, and P. Jack Hoopes "Nanoparticles in medicine: selected observations and experimental caveats", Proc. SPIE 8584, Energy-based Treatment of Tissue and Assessment VII, 858402 (26 February 2013);

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