26 February 2013 Interstitial ultrasound ablation of tumors within or adjacent to bone: Contributions of preferential heating at the bone surface
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Preferential heating of bone due to high ultrasound attenuation may enhance thermal ablation performed with cathetercooled interstitial ultrasound applicators in or near bone. At the same time, thermally and acoustically insulating cortical bone may protect sensitive structures nearby. 3D acoustic and biothermal transient finite element models were developed to simulate temperature and thermal dose distributions during catheter-cooled interstitial ultrasound ablation near bone. Experiments in ex vivo tissues and tissue-mimicking phantoms were performed to validate the models and to quantify the temperature profiles and ablated volumes for various distances between the interstitial applicator and the bone surface. 3D patient-specific models selected to bracket the range of clinical usage were developed to investigate what types of tumors could be treated, applicator configurations, insertion paths, safety margins, and other parameters. Experiments show that preferential heating at the bone surface decreases treatment times compared to when bone is absent and that all tissue between an applicator and bone can be ablated when they are up to 2 cm apart. Simulations indicate that a 5-7 mm safety margin of normal bone is needed to protect (thermal dose < 6 CEM43°C and T < 45°C) sensitive structures behind ablated bone. In 3D patient-specific simulations, tumors 1.0-3.8 cm (L) and 1.3-3.0 cm (D) near or within bone were ablated (thermal dose > 240 CEM43°C) within 10 min without damaging the nearby spinal cord, lungs, esophagus, trachea, or major vasculature. Preferential absorption of ultrasound by bone may provide improved localization, faster treatment times, and larger treatment zones in tumors in and near bone compared to other heating modalities.
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Serena J. Scott, Serena J. Scott, Punit Prakash, Punit Prakash, Vasant Salgaonkar, Vasant Salgaonkar, Peter D. Jones, Peter D. Jones, Richard N. Cam, Richard N. Cam, Misung Han, Misung Han, Viola Rieke, Viola Rieke, E. Clif Burdette, E. Clif Burdette, Chris J. Diederich, Chris J. Diederich, "Interstitial ultrasound ablation of tumors within or adjacent to bone: Contributions of preferential heating at the bone surface", Proc. SPIE 8584, Energy-based Treatment of Tissue and Assessment VII, 85840Z (26 February 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2002632; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2002632

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