22 February 2013 Kinetic identification of protein ligands in a 51,200 small-molecule library using microarrays and a label-free ellipsometric scanner
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Drug discovery begins by identifying protein-small molecule binding pairs. Afterwards, binding kinetics and biofunctional assays are performed, to reduce candidates for further development. High-throughput screening, typically employing fluorescence, is widely used to find protein ligands in small-molecule libraries, but is rarely used for binding kinetics measurement because: (1) attaching fluorophores to proteins can alter kinetics and (2) most label-free technologies for kinetics measurement are inherently low-throughput and consume expensive sensing surfaces. We addressed this need with polarization-modulated ellipsometric scanning microscopes, called oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD). Label-free ligand screening and kinetics measurement are performed simultaneously on small-molecule microarrays printed on relatively inexpensive isocyanate-functionalized glass slides. As a microarray is reacted, an OI-RD microscope tracks the change in surface-bound macromolecule density in real-time at every spot. We report progress applying OI-RD to screen purified proteins and virus particles against a 51,200-compound library from the National Cancer Institute. Four microarrays, each containing 12,800 library compounds, are installed in four flow cells in an automated OI-RD microscope. The slides are reacted serially, each giving 12,800 binding curves with ~30 sec time resolution. The entire library is kinetically screened against a single probe in ~14 hours and multiple probes can be reacted sequentially under automation. Real-time binding detection identifies both high-affinity and low-affinity (transient binding) interactions; fluorescence endpoint images miss the latter. OI-RD and microarrays together is a powerful high-throughput tool for early stage drug discovery and development. The platform also has great potential for downstream steps such as in vitro inhibition assays.
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James P. Landry, James P. Landry, Andrew P. Proudian, Andrew P. Proudian, Galina Malovichko, Galina Malovichko, Xiangdong Zhu, Xiangdong Zhu, } "Kinetic identification of protein ligands in a 51,200 small-molecule library using microarrays and a label-free ellipsometric scanner", Proc. SPIE 8587, Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues XI, 85871V (22 February 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2003374; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2003374

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