22 February 2013 Neuronal cell growth on polymeric scaffolds studied by CARS microscopy
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Higher-order nonlinearity of light–matter interactions, such as second and third harmonic generation (SHG and THG) and Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) can be used for improving spatial resolution in microscopy as a consequence of the confinement of the nonlinear polarization to the high-intensity region of the focal volume. However, the resolution is limited to ~300 nm, not sufficient to resolve macromolecules or nanostructures of interest in the bio-, life-and nano-sciences. In the strive to push the resolution beyond the diffraction limit, allowing for nanoscale imaging, we have equipped a nonlinear optical microscope with a scanning-probe setup operated in tapping-mode feedback. A tapered, gold-coated, open-aperture tip with an aperture diameter of ~150 nm is scanned over the sample, probing the nonlinear nearfield generated by free-beam excitation. First nonlinear coherent Raman nearfield images of biological macromolecules and metallic nanostructures are shown. Limitations and future challenges with nonlinear nearfield microscopy are discussed.
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Annika Enejder, Annika Enejder, Henning Hagman, Henning Hagman, Juris Kiskis, Juris Kiskis, } "Neuronal cell growth on polymeric scaffolds studied by CARS microscopy", Proc. SPIE 8588, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XIII, 858808 (22 February 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2005002; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2005002

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