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22 February 2013 Neuronal cell growth on polymeric scaffolds studied by CARS microscopy
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Higher-order nonlinearity of light–matter interactions, such as second and third harmonic generation (SHG and THG) and Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) can be used for improving spatial resolution in microscopy as a consequence of the confinement of the nonlinear polarization to the high-intensity region of the focal volume. However, the resolution is limited to ~300 nm, not sufficient to resolve macromolecules or nanostructures of interest in the bio-, life-and nano-sciences. In the strive to push the resolution beyond the diffraction limit, allowing for nanoscale imaging, we have equipped a nonlinear optical microscope with a scanning-probe setup operated in tapping-mode feedback. A tapered, gold-coated, open-aperture tip with an aperture diameter of ~150 nm is scanned over the sample, probing the nonlinear nearfield generated by free-beam excitation. First nonlinear coherent Raman nearfield images of biological macromolecules and metallic nanostructures are shown. Limitations and future challenges with nonlinear nearfield microscopy are discussed.
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Annika Enejder, Henning Hagman, and Juris Kiskis "Neuronal cell growth on polymeric scaffolds studied by CARS microscopy", Proc. SPIE 8588, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XIII, 858808 (22 February 2013);

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