25 February 2013 Determining the amounts of urea and glucose in urine of patients with renal complications from diabetes mellitus and hypertension by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy
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Abstract
Diabetes mellitus and hypertension diseases are frequently found in the same patient, which if untreated predispose to atherosclerotic and kidney diseases. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers in the urine of diabetic and hypertensive patients through dispersive near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Urine samples were collected from patients with diabetes and hypertension but no complications (LG), high degree of complications (HG), and control ones: one fraction was submitted to biochemical tests and another one was stored frozen (-20°C) until spectral analysis. Samples were warmed up and placed in an aluminum sample holder for Raman spectra collection using a dispersive spectrometer (830 nm wavelength, 300 mW laser power and 20 s exposure time). Spectra were then submitted to Principal Components Analysis. The PCA loading vectors 1 and 3 revealed spectral features of urea/creatinine and glucose, respectively; the PCA scores showed that patients with diabetes/hypertension (LG and HG) had higher amount of glucose in the urine compared to the normal group (p < 0.05), which can bring serious consequences to patients. Also, the PCA scores showed that the amount of urea decreased in the groups with diabetes/hypertension (p < 0.05), which generates the same concern as it is a marker that has a strong importance in the metabolic changes induced by such diseases. These results, applied to the analysis of urine of patients with diabetes/hypertension, can lead to early diagnostic information of complications and a possible disease prognosis in the patients where no complications from diabetes and hypertension were found.
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Jeyse Aliana Martin Bispo, Landulfo Silveira, Elzo Everton de Sousa Vieira, Adriana Barrinha Fernandes, "Determining the amounts of urea and glucose in urine of patients with renal complications from diabetes mellitus and hypertension by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy", Proc. SPIE 8591, Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XIII: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics, 85910T (25 February 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2005471; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2005471
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