21 February 2013 Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles for hybrid x-ray/optical imaging
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Abstract
Some lanthanide-doped nanoparticles can absorb X-ray radiation and emit in the visible to near infrared spectrum via a down-conversion mechanism, making them a potentially valuable agent for in vivo imaging studies. We have studied a series of Gd3+ and Eu3+compositions in lanthanide fluorides to optimize the emission from Eu3+ upon X-ray excitation. The optimum concentration of Eu3+ that produced the most intense emission in NaGdF4 was found to be 15% molar concentration. The impact of the crystallographic phases (i.e. cubic or hexagonal) on the optical emission was investigated. Furthermore, an attempt to include a sensitizer (i.e Ce3+) in NaGdF4:Eu resulted in a reduction in the emission following X-ray excitation. A surface coating of NaGdF4:Eu nanoparticles with a gold shell showed a similar decrease in luminescence intensity by a factor of two although the gold shell offers other advantages in biomedical applications.
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L. Sudheendra, Gautom K. Das, C. Li, Simon R. Cherry, Ian M. Kennedy, "Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles for hybrid x-ray/optical imaging", Proc. SPIE 8596, Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical Applications V, 85960D (21 February 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2005250; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2005250
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