15 March 2013 Diode laser processed crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells
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Abstract
Line-focus diode laser is applied to advance crystalline silicon thin-film solar cell technology. Three new processes have been developed: 1) defect annealing/dopant activation; 2) dopant diffusion; 3) liquid phase crystallisation of thin films. The former two processes are applied to either create a solar cell device from pre-crystallised films or improve its performance while reducing the maximum temperature experienced by substrate. The later process is applied to amorphous silicon films to obtain high crystal and electronic quality material for thin-film solar cells with higher efficiency potential. Defect annealing/dopant activation and dopant diffusion in a few micron thick poly-Si films are achieved by scanning with line-focus 808 nm diode laser beam at 15-24 kW/cm2 laser power and 2~6 ms exposure. Temperature profile in the film during the treatment is independent from laser power and exposure but determined by beam shape. Solar cell open-circuit voltages of about 500 mV after such laser treatments is similar or even higher than voltages after standard rapid-thermal treatments while the highest temperature experienced by glass is 300C lower. Amorphous silicon films can be melted and subsequently liquid-phase crystallised by a single scan of line laser beam at about 20 kW/cm2 power and 10-15 ms exposure. Solar cells made of laser-crystallised material achieve 557 mV opencircuit voltage and 8.4% efficiency. Electronic quality of such cells is consistent with efficiencies exceeding 13% and it is currently limited by research-level simplified cell metallisation.
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S. Varlamov, S. Varlamov, B. Eggleston, B. Eggleston, J. Dore, J. Dore, R. Evans, R. Evans, D. Ong, D. Ong, O. Kunz, O. Kunz, J. Huang, J. Huang, U. Schubert, U. Schubert, K. H. Kim, K. H. Kim, R. Egan, R. Egan, M. Green, M. Green, } "Diode laser processed crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells", Proc. SPIE 8608, Laser-based Micro- and Nanopackaging and Assembly VII, 86080Q (15 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2002247; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2002247
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