18 March 2013 Development of tellurium oxide and lead-bismuth oxide glasses for mid-wave infra-red transmission optics
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Proceedings Volume 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV; 86261F (2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2000315
Event: SPIE OPTO, 2013, San Francisco, California, United States
Abstract
Heavy metal oxide glasses exhibiting high transmission in the Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) spectrum are often difficult to manufacture in large sizes with optimized physical and optical properties. In this work, we researched and developed improved tellurium-zinc-barium and lead-bismuth-gallium heavy metal oxide glasses for use in the manufacture of fiber optics, optical components and laser gain materials. Two glass families were investigated, one based upon tellurium and another based on lead-bismuth. Glass compositions were optimized for stability and high transmission in the MWIR. Targeted glass specifications included low hydroxyl concentration, extended MWIR transmission window, and high resistance against devitrification upon heating. Work included the processing of high purity raw materials, melting under controlled dry Redox balanced atmosphere, finning, casting and annealing. Batch melts as large as 4 kilograms were sprue cast into aluminum and stainless steel molds or temperature controlled bronze tube with mechanical bait. Small (100g) test melts were typically processed in-situ in a 5%Au°/95%Pt° crucible. Our group manufactured and evaluated over 100 different experimental heavy metal glass compositions during a two year period. A wide range of glass melting, fining, casting techniques and experimental protocols were employed. MWIR glass applications include remote sensing, directional infrared counter measures, detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents, laser detection tracking and ranging, range gated imaging and spectroscopy. Enhanced long range mid-infrared sensor performance is optimized when operating in the atmospheric windows from ~ 2.0 to 2.4μm, ~ 3.5 to 4.3μm and ~ 4.5 to 5.0μm.
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Beiming Zhou, Charles F. Rapp, John K. Driver, Michael J. Myers, John D. Myers, Jonathan Goldstein, Rich Utano, Shantanu Gupta, "Development of tellurium oxide and lead-bismuth oxide glasses for mid-wave infra-red transmission optics", Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 86261F (18 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2000315; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2000315
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