The current development in photonics for communications and interconnects pose increasing requirements on reduction of footprint, power dissipation and cost, as well as increased bandwidth. Integrated nanophotonics has been viewed as one solution to this, capitalizing on development in nanotechnology as such as well as on increased insights into light matter interaction on the nanoscale. The latter can be exemplified by plasmonics and low-dimensional semiconductors such as quantum dots (QDs). In this scenario the development of better electrooptic materials is also of great importance, the electrooptic polymers being an example, since they potentially offer improved properties for optical phase modulators in terms of power and probably cost and general flexibility. Phase modulators are essential for e.g. the rapidly developing advanced modulation formats for telecom, since phase modulation basically can generate any type of modulation. The electrooptic polymers, e.g. in combination with plasmonics nanoparticle array waveguides or nanostructured hybrid plasmonic media can theoretically give extremely compact and low power dissipation modulators, still to be demonstrated. The low-dimensional semiconductors, e.g. in the shape of QDs, can be employed for modulation or switching functions, offering possibilities in the future for scaling to 2 or 3 dimensions for advanced switching functions. In both the plasmonics and QD cases, nanosizing and low power dissipation are generally due to near-field interactions, albeit being of different physical origin in the two cases. A comparison of all-optical and electronically controlled switching is given.