13 March 2013 The range of VCSEL wearout reliability acceleration behavior and its effects on applications
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Abstract
For nearly twenty years most models of VCSEL wearout reliability have incorporated Arrhenius activation energy near 0.7 eV, usually with a modest current exponent in addition. As VCSEL production extends into more wavelength, power, and speed regimes new active regions, mirror designs, and growth conditions have become necessary. Even at more traditional VCSEL 850-nm wavelengths instances of very different reliability acceleration factors have arisen. In some cases these have profound effects on the expected reliability under normal use conditions, resulting in wearout lifetimes that can vary more than an order of magnitude. These differences enable the extension of VCSELs in communications applications to even greater speeds with reliability equal to or even greater than the previous lowerspeed devices. This paper discusses some of the new applications, different wearout behaviors, and their implications in real-life operation. The effect of different acceleration behaviors on reliability testing is also addressed.
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James Guenter, James Guenter, Luke Graham, Luke Graham, Bobby Hawkins, Bobby Hawkins, Robert Hawthorne, Robert Hawthorne, Ralph Johnson, Ralph Johnson, Gary Landry, Gary Landry, Jim Tatum, Jim Tatum, "The range of VCSEL wearout reliability acceleration behavior and its effects on applications", Proc. SPIE 8639, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XVII, 86390I (13 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2002840; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2002840
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