19 February 2013 TDC-based readout electronics for real-time acquisition of high resolution PET bio-images
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Positron emission tomography (PET) is a clinical and research tool for in vivo metabolic imaging. The demand for better image quality entails continuous research to improve PET instrumentation. In clinical applications, PET image quality benefits from the time of flight (TOF) feature. Indeed, by measuring the photons arrival time on the detectors with a resolution less than 100 ps, the annihilation point can be estimated with centimeter resolution. This leads to better noise level, contrast and clarity of detail in the images either using analytical or iterative reconstruction algorithms. This work discusses a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based magnetic-field compatible TOF-PET module with depth of interaction (DOI) correction. The detector features a 3D architecture with two tiles of SiPMs coupled to a single LYSO scintillator on both its faces. The real-time front-end electronics is based on a current-mode ASIC where a low input impedance, fast current buffer allows achieving the required time resolution. A pipelined time to digital converter (TDC) measures and digitizes the arrival time and the energy of the events with a timestamp of 100 ps and 400 ps, respectively. An FPGA clusters the data and evaluates the DOI, with a simulated z resolution of the PET image of 1.4 mm FWHM.
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N. Marino, N. Marino, S. Saponara, S. Saponara, G. Ambrosi, G. Ambrosi, F. Baronti, F. Baronti, M. G. Bisogni, M. G. Bisogni, P, Cerello, P, Cerello, F. Ciciriello, F. Ciciriello, F. Corsi, F. Corsi, L. Fanucci, L. Fanucci, M. Ionica, M. Ionica, F. Licciulli, F. Licciulli, C. Marzocca, C. Marzocca, M. Morrocchi, M. Morrocchi, F. Pennazio, F. Pennazio, R. Roncella, R. Roncella, C. Santoni, C. Santoni, R. Wheadon, R. Wheadon, A. Del Guerra, A. Del Guerra, "TDC-based readout electronics for real-time acquisition of high resolution PET bio-images", Proc. SPIE 8656, Real-Time Image and Video Processing 2013, 86560P (19 February 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2001064; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2001064

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