22 March 2013 On the role of side information in steganography in empirical covers
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In an attempt to alleviate the negative impact of unavailable cover model, some steganographic schemes utilize the knowledge of the so-called “precover” when embedding secret data. The precover is typically a higherresolution (unquantized) representation of the cover, such as the raw sensor output before it is converted to an 8-bit per channel color image. The precover object is only available to the sender but not to the Warden, which seems to give a fundamental advantage to the sender. In this paper, we provide theoretical insight for why side-informed embedding schemes for empirical covers might provide high level of security. By adopting a piece-wise polynomial model corrupted by AWGN for the content, we prove that when the cover is sufficiently non-stationary, embedding by minimizing distortion w.r.t. the precover is more secure than by preserving a model estimated from the cover (the so-called model-based steganography). Moreover, the side-informed embedding enjoys four times lower steganographic Fisher information than LSB matching.
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Jessica Fridrich, Jessica Fridrich, "On the role of side information in steganography in empirical covers", Proc. SPIE 8665, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics 2013, 86650I (22 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2001555; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2001555

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