22 March 2013 A study of embedding operations and locations for steganography in H.264 video
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Abstract
This work studies the fundamental building blocks for steganography in H.264 compressed video: the embedding operation and the choice of embedding locations. Our aim is to inform the design of better video steganography, a topic on which there has been relatively little publication so far. We determine the best embedding option, from a small menu of embedding operations and locations, as benchmarked by an empirical estimate of Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD) for rst- and second-order features extracted from a video corpus. A highly-stable estimate of MMD can be formed because of the large sample size. The best embedding operation (so-called F5) is identical to that found by a recent study of still compressed image steganography, but in video the options for embedding location are richer: we show that the least detectable option, of those studied, is to spread payload unequally between the Luma and the two Chroma channels.
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Andreas Neufeld, Andreas Neufeld, Andrew D. Ker, Andrew D. Ker, "A study of embedding operations and locations for steganography in H.264 video", Proc. SPIE 8665, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics 2013, 86650J (22 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2003680; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2003680
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