22 March 2013 A study of embedding operations and locations for steganography in H.264 video
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Abstract
This work studies the fundamental building blocks for steganography in H.264 compressed video: the embedding operation and the choice of embedding locations. Our aim is to inform the design of better video steganography, a topic on which there has been relatively little publication so far. We determine the best embedding option, from a small menu of embedding operations and locations, as benchmarked by an empirical estimate of Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD) for rst- and second-order features extracted from a video corpus. A highly-stable estimate of MMD can be formed because of the large sample size. The best embedding operation (so-called F5) is identical to that found by a recent study of still compressed image steganography, but in video the options for embedding location are richer: we show that the least detectable option, of those studied, is to spread payload unequally between the Luma and the two Chroma channels.
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Andreas Neufeld, Andreas Neufeld, Andrew D. Ker, Andrew D. Ker, } "A study of embedding operations and locations for steganography in H.264 video", Proc. SPIE 8665, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics 2013, 86650J (22 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2003680; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2003680
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