In this paper, we first review the lossless coding mode in the version 1 of the HEVC standard that has recently finalized.
We then provide a performance comparison between the lossless coding mode in the HEVC and MPEG-AVC/H.264
standards and show that the HEVC lossless coding has limited coding efficiency. To improve the performance of the
lossless coding mode, several new coding tools that were contributed to JCT-VC but not adopted in version 1 of HEVC
standard are introduced. In particular, we discuss sample based intra prediction and coding of residual coefficients in
more detail. At the end, we briefly address a new class of coding tools, i.e., a dictionary-based coder, that is efficient in
encoding screen content including graphics and text.