Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and clinical evaluation of x-ray systems. These
phantoms are used for various tests such as quality assurance testing, system characterization, reconstruction evaluation,
and dosimetry. They should ideally be capable of serving as ground truth for purposes such as virtual clinical trials.
Currently, there is no anthropomorphic 3D physical phantom commercially available. We present our development of a
new suite of physical breast phantoms based on real patient data. The phantoms were generated from the NURBS-based
extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) breast phantoms, which were segmented from patient dedicated breast computed
tomography data. High-resolution multi-material 3D printing technology was used to fabricate the physical models.
Glandular tissue and skin were presented by the most radiographically dense photopolymer available to the printer,
mimicking a 75% glandular tissue. Adipose tissue was presented by the least radiographically dense photopolymer,
mimicking a 35% glandular tissue. The glandular equivalency was measured by comparing x-ray images of samples of
the photopolymers available to the printer with those of breast tissue-equivalent materials. The mammographic
projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of fabricated models showed great improvement over available
phantoms, presenting a more realistic breast background.