In this paper, we present a texture classification method based on texton learned via sparse representation (SR) with new feature histogram maps in the classification of emphysema. First, an overcomplete dictionary of textons is learned via KSVD learning on every class image patches in the training dataset. In this stage, high-pass filter is introduced to exclude patches in smooth area to speed up the dictionary learning process. Second, 3D joint-SR coefficients and intensity histograms of the test images are used for characterizing regions of interest (ROIs) instead of conventional feature histograms constructed from SR coefficients of the test images over the dictionary. Classification is then performed using a classifier with distance as a histogram dissimilarity measure. Four hundreds and seventy annotated ROIs extracted from 14 test subjects, including 6 paraseptal emphysema (PSE) subjects, 5 centrilobular emphysema (CLE)
subjects and 3 panlobular emphysema (PLE) subjects, are used to evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of the
proposed method. The proposed method is tested on 167 PSE, 240 CLE and 63 PLE ROIs consisting of mild, moderate
and severe pulmonary emphysema. The accuracy of the proposed system is around 74%, 88% and 89% for PSE, CLE
and PLE, respectively.