This paper aims to detect the evolution between two images representing the same scene. The evolution detection
problem has many practical applications, especially in medical images. Indeed, the concept of a patient “file” implies the joint analysis of different acquisitions taken at different times, and the detection of significant modifications. The
research presented in this paper is carried out within the application context of the development of computer assisted
diagnosis (CAD) applied to mammograms. It is performed on already registered pair of images. As the registration is
never perfect, we must develop a comparison method sufficiently adapted to detect real small differences between
comparable tissues. In many applications, the assessment of similarity used during the registration step is also used for
the interpretation step that yields to prompt suspicious regions. In our case registration is assumed to match the spatial coordinates of similar anatomical elements. In this paper, in order to process the medical images at tissue level, the image representation is based on elementary patterns, therefore seeking patterns, not pixels. Besides, as the studied images have low entropy, the decomposed signal is expressed in a parsimonious way. Parsimonious representations are known to help extract the significant structures of a signal, and generate a compact version of the data. This change of representation should allow us to compare the studied images in a short time, thanks to the low weight of the images thus represented, while maintaining a good representativeness. The good precision of our results show the approach efficiency.