29 March 2013 Preliminary examples of 3D vector flow imaging
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This paper presents 3D vector flow images obtained using the 3D Transverse Oscillation (TO) method. The method employs a 2D transducer and estimates the three velocity components simultaneously, which is important for visualizing complex flow patterns. Data are acquired using the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS on a flow-rig system with steady flow. The vessel of the flow-rig is centered at a depth of 30 mm, and the flow has an expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic profile with a peak velocity of 1 m/s. Ten frames of 3D vector flow images are acquired in a cross-sectional plane orthogonal to the center axis of the vessel, which coincides with the y-axis and the flow direction. Hence, only out-of-plane motion is expected. This motion cannot be measured by typical commercial scanners employing 1D arrays. Each frame consists of 16 flow lines steered from -15 to 15 degrees in steps of 2 degrees in the ZX-plane. For the center line, 3200 M-mode lines are acquired yielding 100 velocity profiles. At the center of the vessel, the mean and standard deviation of the estimated velocity vectors are (vx, vy, vz) = (-0.026, 95, 1.0)±(8.8, 6.2, 0.84) cm/s compared to the expected (0.0, 96, 0.0) cm/s. Relative to the velocity magnitude this yields standard deviations of (9.1, 6.4, 0.88) %, respectively. Volumetric flow rates were estimated for all ten frames yielding 57.9±2.0 mL/s in comparison with 56.2 mL/s measured by a commercial magnetic flow meter. One frame of the obtained 3D vector flow data is presented and visualized using three alternative approaches. Practically no in-plane motion (vx and vz) is measured, whereas the out-of-plane motion (vy) and the velocity magnitude exhibit the expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic shape. It shown that the ultrasound method is suitable for real-time data acquisition as opposed to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The results demonstrate that the 3D TO method is capable of performing 3D vector flow imaging.
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Michael Johannes Pihl, Michael Johannes Pihl, Matthias Bo Stuart, Matthias Bo Stuart, Borislav Gueorguiev Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev Tomov, Jens Munk Hansen, Jens Munk Hansen, Morten Fischer Rasmussen, Morten Fischer Rasmussen, Jørgen Arendt Jensen, Jørgen Arendt Jensen, } "Preliminary examples of 3D vector flow imaging", Proc. SPIE 8675, Medical Imaging 2013: Ultrasonic Imaging, Tomography, and Therapy, 86750H (29 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2006845; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2006845

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