To fulfil advanced process control requirements for 1X node production, the semiconductor industry must cope with multiple parallel metrology requirements such as resolution, precision and accuracy enhancement in all directions to answer to new 3D integrated circuit fabrication methods. At the 1D and 2D levels, CDSEM and Scatterometry techniques are the workhorse techniques for production and process control. However, for process control of 3D devices and high resolution patterning such as direct self-assembly lithography, reference metrology is necessary to maintain a global process control uncertainty that is sufficient for production standards. CD-SEM and Scatterometry have intrinsic limitations that limit their utility for these cases, and new characterization methods are needed. Among the industrial reference techniques currently available, TEM and CD-AFM are generally employed to address this issues but both of these techniques have their own limitations for 1X node production. Nevertheless, they are also very useful for engineers to calibrate production CD metrology techniques and for more accurate process window and process development definition at the R&D level. Thus, there is a critical need to develop new technologies that build upon these capabilities while overcoming the limitations.