29 March 2013 Non-aqueous negative-tone development of inorganic metal oxide nanoparticle photoresists for next generation lithography
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As feature sizes continue to shrink, the need for new materials and processes becomes more urgent. In order to achieve high-resolution patterns and low line edge roughness (LER), there have been many studies on small molecular resists. In terms of processes, there have been growing interests in negative-tone development because of its better performance in printing narrow trenches and contact holes. As new patterning materials, we have synthesized inorganic nanoparticle resists that consist of a metal oxide (HfO2 or ZrO2) core surrounded by organic ligands. The inorganic core provides high etch-resistance while the organic ligands give the resists photochemical functionality. Because of their high etch-resistance, thin films of these nanoparticle photoresists are sufficient to provide good pattern transfer to the substrate and eliminate problems such as pattern collapse. Negative-tone patterning of these nanoparticle photoresists can be achieved by using an organic solvent. The small sizes (1-3nm) of these nanoparticle resists can also enable high-resolution patterning and have the potential to reduce LER. We have successfully shown negative-tone patterning of these nanoparticle resists with features as small as 30 nm using both e-beam and EUV lithography and this paper seeks to study the NTD results with different negative-tone developers.
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Christine Y. Ouyang, Christine Y. Ouyang, Yeon Sook Chung, Yeon Sook Chung, Li Li, Li Li, Mark Neisser, Mark Neisser, Kyoungyong Cho, Kyoungyong Cho, Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Christopher K. Ober, Christopher K. Ober, } "Non-aqueous negative-tone development of inorganic metal oxide nanoparticle photoresists for next generation lithography", Proc. SPIE 8682, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXX, 86820R (29 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2011282; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2011282

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