29 March 2013 Evaluation of sensitivity for positive tone non-chemically and chemically amplified resists using ionized radiation: EUV, x-ray, electron and ion induced reactions
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Abstract
The different exposure sources induce a different energy deposition in resist materials. Linear energy transfer (LET) effect for resist sensitivity is very important issue from the viewpoint of radiation induced chemical reactions for high-volume nanofabrication. The sensitivities of positive tone non-chemically (non-CA, ZEP) and chemically amplified (CA, UV-3) resist materials are evaluated using various ionized radiation such as EUV, soft X-rays, EB and various ion beams. Since the notations of sensitivity of resist vary with exposure sources, in order to evaluate systematically, the resist sensitivity were estimated in terms of absorbed dose in resist materials. Highly-monochromated EUV and soft X-rays (6.7 nm – 3.1 nm) from the BL27SU of the SPring-8, high energy ion beams (C6+, Ne10+, Mg12+, Si14+ , Ar18+, Kr36+ and Xe54+) with 6 MeV/u from MEXP of HIMAC, EB from low energy EB accelerator (Hamamatsu Photonics, EB-engine®, 100 kV) and EB lithography system (30 keV and 75keV) were used for the exposure. For non-CA and CA resist materials, it was found that LET effects for sensitivity would be hardly observed except for heavier ion beams. Especially, in the case of the high energy ion beam less than Si14+ with 6 MeV/u, it is suggested that the radiation induced chemical reaction would be equivalent to EUV, soft X-ray and EB exposure. Hence, it indicates that the resist sensitivity could be systematically evaluated by absorbed dose in resist materials.
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Akihiro Oshima, Akihiro Oshima, Tomoko Gowa Oyama, Tomoko Gowa Oyama, Masakazu Washio, Masakazu Washio, Seiichi Tagawa, Seiichi Tagawa, } "Evaluation of sensitivity for positive tone non-chemically and chemically amplified resists using ionized radiation: EUV, x-ray, electron and ion induced reactions", Proc. SPIE 8682, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXX, 86821A (29 March 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2011433; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2011433
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