12 April 2013 Accurate 3DEMF mask model for full-chip simulation
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The Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) for approximating the impact of 3DEMF effects was introduced nearly ten years ago as an approach to deliver good accuracy for rapid simulation of full-chip applications. This approximation, which treats mask edges as independent from one another, provided improved model accuracy over the traditional Kirchhoff thin mask model for the case of alternating aperture phase shift masks which featured severe mask topography. This aggressive PSM technology was not widely deployed in manufacturing, and with the advent of thinner absorbing layers, the impact of mask topography has been relatively well contained through the 32 nm technology node, where Kirchhoff mask models have proved effective. At 20 nm and below, however, the thin mask approximation leads to larger errors, and the DDM model is seen to be effective in providing a more accurate representation of the aerial image. The original DDM model assumes normal incidence, and a subsequent version incorporates signals from oblique angles. As mask dimensions become smaller, the assumption of non-interacting mask edges breaks down, and a further refinement of the model is required to account for edge to edge cross talk. In this study, we evaluate the progression of improvements in modeling mask 3DEMF effects by comparing to rigorous simulation results. It is shown that edge to edge interactions can be accurately accounted for in the modified DDM library. A methodology is presented for the generation of an accurate 3DEMF model library which can be used in full chip OPC correction.
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Michael C. Lam, Michael C. Lam, Kostas Adam, Kostas Adam, David Fryer, David Fryer, Christian Zuniga, Christian Zuniga, Haiqing Wei, Haiqing Wei, Michael Oliver, Michael Oliver, Chris H. Clifford, Chris H. Clifford, "Accurate 3DEMF mask model for full-chip simulation", Proc. SPIE 8683, Optical Microlithography XXVI, 86831D (12 April 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2013167; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2013167

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