9 April 2013 Reactive actuators and sensors integrated in one device: mimicking brain-muscles feedback communication
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Artificial muscles based on carbon derivative molecular structures are chemical (electro-chemo-mechanical) actuators. The electrochemical reaction drives the film volume variation and the actuation. The applied current controls the movement rate and the charge controls the amplitude of the displacement (Faraday’ motors). Any working or surrounding variable influencing the reaction rate will be sensed by the muscle potential, or by the consumed electrical energy, evolution during actuation. Experimental results and full theoretical description of the basic reactive material and of any dual electrochemical sensing-actuator will be presented. During current flow the muscle potential and the consumed electrical energy evolution are influenced by the working variables: temperature, electrolyte concentration, driving current, film volume variation (external pressure, applied strain, hanged masses, obstacles in its way). The working muscle becomes an electrochemical sensor. Only two connecting wires contain actuating (current) and sensing (potential) signals read and controlled, at any time from the computer-generator. One device integrates several sensing and actuating tools working simultaneously mimicking muscles/brain feedback communication.
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Toribio F. Otero, Toribio F. Otero, Jose G. Martinez, Jose G. Martinez, } "Reactive actuators and sensors integrated in one device: mimicking brain-muscles feedback communication", Proc. SPIE 8687, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2013, 868705 (9 April 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2006750; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2006750

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