31 May 2013 Wide-bandwidth, wide-beamwidth, high-resolution, millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection
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Abstract
Active millimeter-wave imaging is currently being used for personnel screening at airports and other high-security facilities. The cylindrical imaging techniques used in the deployed systems are based on licensed technology developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The cylindrical and a related planar imaging technique form three-dimensional images by scanning a diverging beam swept frequency transceiver over a two-dimensional aperture and mathematically focusing or reconstructing the data into three-dimensional images of the person being screened. The resolution, clothing penetration, and image illumination quality obtained with these techniques can be significantly enhanced through the selection of the aperture size, antenna beamwidth, center frequency, and bandwidth. The lateral resolution can be improved by increasing the center frequency, or it can be increased with a larger antenna beamwidth. The wide beamwidth approach can significantly improve illumination quality relative to a higher frequency system. Additionally, a wide antenna beamwidth allows for operation at a lower center frequency resulting in less scattering and attenuation from the clothing. The depth resolution of the system can be improved by increasing the bandwidth. Utilization of extremely wide bandwidths of up to 30 GHz can result in depth resolution as fine as 5 mm. This wider bandwidth operation may allow for improved detection techniques based on high range resolution. In this paper, the results of an extensive imaging study that explored the advantages of using extremely wide beamwidth and bandwidth are presented, primarily for 10-40 GHz frequency band.
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David M. Sheen, Justin L. Fernandes, Jonathan R. Tedeschi, Douglas L. McMakin, A. Mark Jones, Wayne M. Lechelt, Ronald H. Severtsen, "Wide-bandwidth, wide-beamwidth, high-resolution, millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection", Proc. SPIE 8715, Passive and Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging XVI, 871509 (31 May 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2016132; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2016132
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