31 May 2013 Evaluation of endogenous species involved in brain tumors using multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy
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It has been shown that using non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS), excised brain tumor (grade III astrocytoma) and healthy tissue can be differentiated from each other, even in neighboring biopsy samples[1, 2]. Because of this, this powerful technique offers a great deal of potential for use as a surgical guidance technique for tumor margining with up to cellular level spatial resolution[3]. NMPPAS spectra are obtained by monitoring the non-radiative relaxation pathways via ultrasonic detection, following two-photon excitation with light in the optical diagnostic window (740nm-1100nm). Based upon significant differences in the ratiometric absorption of the tissues following 970nm and 1100nm excitation, a clear classification of the tissue can be made. These differences are the result of variations in composition and oxidation state of certain endogenous biochemical species between healthy and malignant tissues. In this work, NADH, NAD+ and ATP were measured using NMPPAS in model gelatin tissue phantoms to begin to understand which species might be responsible for the observed spectral differences in the tissue. Each species was placed in specific pH environments to provide control over the ratio of oxidized to reduced forms of the species. Ratiometric analyses were then conducted to account for variability caused due to instrumental parameters. This paper will discuss the potential roles of each of the species for tumor determination and their contribution to the spectral signature.
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Sudhir Dahal, Sudhir Dahal, Brian M. Cullum, Brian M. Cullum, "Evaluation of endogenous species involved in brain tumors using multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy ", Proc. SPIE 8719, Smart Biomedical and Physiological Sensor Technology X, 871910 (31 May 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2014179; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2014179


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