29 May 2013 A multi-frequency, self-calibrating, in-situ soil sensor with energy efficient wireless interface
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Abstract
Real time and accurate measurement of sub-surface soil moisture and nutrients is critical for agricultural and environmental studies. This paper presents a novel on-board solution for a robust, accurate and self-calibrating soil moisture and nutrient sensor with inbuilt wireless transmission and reception capability that makes it ideally suited to act as a node in a network spread over a large area. The sensor works on the principle of soil impedance measurement by comparing the amplitude and phase of signals incident on and reflected from the soil in proximity of the sensor. Accuracy of measurements is enhanced by considering a distributed transmission line model for the on-board connections. Presence of an inbuilt self-calibrating mechanism which operates on the standard short-open-load (SOL) technique makes the sensor independent of inaccuracies that may occur due to variations in temperature and surroundings. Moreover, to minimize errors, the parasitic impedances of the board are taken into account in the measurements. Measurements of both real and imaginary parts of soil impedance at multiple frequencies gives the sensor an ability to detect variations in ionic concentrations other than soil moisture content. A switch-controlled multiple power mode transmission and reception is provided to support highly energy efficient medium access control.1
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Gunjan Pandey, Ratnesh Kumar, Robert J. Weber, "A multi-frequency, self-calibrating, in-situ soil sensor with energy efficient wireless interface", Proc. SPIE 8721, Sensing for Agriculture and Food Quality and Safety V, 87210V (29 May 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2021200; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2021200
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