The objective of the study is to present integrative paradigms highlighting their applicability of polarimetry to multidisciplinary areas such as space defense and bioscience applications. Polarimetric sensing and imaging offer unique advantages for a wide range of detection and classification problems due to the intrinsic potential for high contrast in different polarization components of the backscattered light. Indeed, polarized imaging can yield high-specificity images under high-dynamic range and extreme condition scenarios, in scattering media, or cluttered environments, offering at the same instance information related to the object material composition and its surface characteristics. In this study, a new imaging approach based on polarimetric detection principles will be introduced and the Mueller matrix formalism will be defined, and will be applied for space applications, such as detection of unresolved objects, as well as for early cancer detection. The design principles of the liquid crystal polarimetric imaging system will be introduced and related to operating conditions and system performance metrics. The depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance of the materials will be estimated using Mueller matrix decomposition for different aspect angles.