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23 May 2013 Temperature-dependent spectroscopy of Ho3+:YVO4 relevant to 2-μm laser operation
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The spectroscopic properties of Ho3+-doped YVO4 were studied at cryogenic and room temperatures in the 2 μm spectral region to clarify recent observations of efficient dual-wavelength laser operation in this material. Polarized absorption cross sections were measured, and stimulated emission cross sections were determined using the reciprocity method coupled with Füchtbauer-Ladenburg calculations. The observed laser emission wavelengths were at 2041.7 nm, 2054.2 nm, and 2068.5 nm; the first two corresponding to pi transitions and the third to a sigma transition. Gain cross section calculations were used to predict which of the three wavelengths would lase for a given output coupler reflectivity. In depth analysis of the gain cross section in the region between 80 K and 100 K showed that the laser output wavelength is very susceptible to minor changes in temperature.
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Z. D. Fleischman, L. D. Merkle, G. A. Newburgh, and M. Dubinskii "Temperature-dependent spectroscopy of Ho3+:YVO4 relevant to 2-μm laser operation", Proc. SPIE 8733, Laser Technology for Defense and Security IX, 87330G (23 May 2013);

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