By taking the red soil hilly region of Central Hunan Province in China as an example, this paper evaluated the risk degree of water and soil loss using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods. Firstly, the synthetic index system of water and soil loss risk degree (WSLRD) evaluation was established based on the current situation, natural and human factors. Secondly, the weights of fifteen indices were determined using AHP methods. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation model was used to evaluate the risk degree of water and soil loss at the research locations. The results showed that five cities (Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, Loudi, and Yiyang) had a slight degree of risk, while Hengyang and Shaoyang had a middle degree of risk. The WSLRD in this region can provide scientific basis for developing effective plan of soil and water conversation, especially it is of importance to consider human activity factors when evaluating the risk.