17 May 2013 Fabrication of vertical nanowire resonators for aerosol exposure assessment
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Vertical silicon nanowire (SiNW) resonators are designed and fabricated in order to assess exposure to aerosol nanoparticles (NPs). To realize SiNW arrays, nanolithography and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) at cryogenic temperature are utilized in a top-down fabrication of SiNW arrays which have high aspect ratios (i.e., up to 34). For nanolithography process, a resist film thickness of 350 nm is applied in a vacuum contact mode to serve as a mask. A pattern including various diameters and distances for creating pillars is used (i.e., 400 nm up to 5 μm). In dry etching process, the etch rate is set high of 1.5 μm/min to avoid underetching. The etch profiles of Si wires can be controlled aiming to have either perpendicularly, negatively or positively profiled sidewalls by adjusting the etching parameters (e.g., temperature and oxygen content). Moreover, to further miniaturize the wire, multiple sacrificial thermal oxidations and subsequent oxide stripping are used yielding SiNW arrays of 650 nm in diameter and 40 μm in length. In the resonant frequency test, a piezoelectric shear actuator is integrated with the SiNWs inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber. The observation of the SiNW deflections are performed and viewed from the topside of the SiNWs to reduce the measurement redundancy. Having a high deflection of ~10 μm during its resonant frequency of 452 kHz and a low mass of 31 pg, the proposed SiNW is potential for assisting the development of a portable aerosol resonant sensor.
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Stephan Merzsch , Stephan Merzsch , Hutomo Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo Wasisto, Andrej Stranz , Andrej Stranz , Peter Hinze , Peter Hinze , Thomas Weimann , Thomas Weimann , Erwin Peiner , Erwin Peiner , Andreas Waag , Andreas Waag , } "Fabrication of vertical nanowire resonators for aerosol exposure assessment", Proc. SPIE 8763, Smart Sensors, Actuators, and MEMS VI, 87630V (17 May 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2016932; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2016932

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