Phase analysis plays a role in optical science and technology. For instance, phase analysis technique has been widely used for 3-D shape and deformation measurement by fringe projection profilometry. To analyze the phase distribution of a single fringe pattern, various fringe pattern analysis methods such as a Fourier transform, a wavelet transform, and the windowed Fourier transform have been developed. In this study, a fast phase analysis technique, i.e., two-dimensional sampling moiré method, is proposed to determine accurately the phase distribution of a single fringe pattern by using two-dimensional intensity information. In this method, we record diagonally a single fringe pattern image by using a CCD camera, and perform the image processing of down-sampling with a sampling pitch and intensity interpolation in both x- and y-directions to generate a two-dimensional phase-shifted moiré fringe. Then, the phase distribution of the moiré fringe can be determined by using phase-shifting method and a two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm. Finally, the desired phase distribution of the original fringe pattern can be obtained by adding the phase of the sampling point to the phase of the moiré pattern. By the proposed method, the phase error caused by the random noise of the camera can be dramatically decreased because the intensity information is much richer than one-dimensional intensity data, which utilizes a two-dimensional DFT algorithm. The fundamental principle and primary simulation and experimental results are presented. Theses results show that phase analysis can be performed under extremely low signal-to-noise ratio measurement condition.