6 May 2013 Compact CMOS analog readout circuit for photon counting applications
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Abstract
The design, simulation results and experimental characterization of a compact analog readout circuit for photon counting applications are presented in this paper. Two linear test arrays of 40 pixels with 25 μm pixel pitch have been fabricated in a 0.15 μm CMOS technology. Each pixel of the array consists of a Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD), a quenching circuit, a time-gating circuit and an analog counter. Each input pulse corresponding to a SPAD avalanche event is converted to a step in the output voltage. Along with compactness, the circuit was designed targeting low power consumption, good output linearity and sub-nanosecond timing resolution. The circuit features 8.6% pixel output nonuniformity and 1.1 % non-linearity. The gating circuit provides the sub-nanosecond window of 0.95 ns at FWHM. Consisting of a small number of transistors and occupying only 238μm2, this approach is suitable for the design of SPAD-based image sensors with high spatial resolution.
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Ekaterina Panina, Ekaterina Panina, Lucio Pancheri, Lucio Pancheri, Gian-Franco Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco Dalla Betta, Leonardo Gasparini, Leonardo Gasparini, David Stoppa, David Stoppa, } "Compact CMOS analog readout circuit for photon counting applications", Proc. SPIE 8773, Photon Counting Applications IV; and Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Transfer and Processing, 877305 (6 May 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2020975; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2020975
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