3 May 2013 Fragmentation of clusters and recombination induced by intense and ultrashort x-ray laser pulses
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Understanding the ultrafast dynamics of matter under extreme conditions is relevant for structural studies and plasma physics with X-ray lasers. We used the pulses from free-electron lasers (FLASH in Hamburg and LCLS in Stanford) to trigger X-ray induced explosions in atomic atoms (Xe) and molecular clusters (CH4 and CD4). The explosion dynamics depends on cluster size and the intensity of the X-ray pulse, and a transition from Coulomb explosion to hydrodynamic expansion is expected with increasing size and increasing pulse intensity. In methane clusters experiments at FLASH, the time-of-flight spectrometry shows the appearance of molecular adducts which are the result of molecular recombination between ions and molecules. The recombination depends on the cluster size and the expansion mechanism and becomes significant in larger clusters. In Xenon cluster experiments at the LCLS, measurements of the ion charge states in clusters suggest a formation of Xe nanoplasma which expands hydrodynamically. The dominance of low charge states of Xe is due to three-body recombination processes involving electron and Xe ions, and it depends on the X-ray intensity and nanoplasma formation.
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N. Tîmneanu, B. Iwan, J. Andreasson, M. Bergh, M. Seibert, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, H. Thomas, D. Rupp, T. Gorkhover, M. Adolph, T. Möller, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, T. Ditmire, "Fragmentation of clusters and recombination induced by intense and ultrashort x-ray laser pulses", Proc. SPIE 8777, Damage to VUV, EUV, and X-ray Optics IV; and EUV and X-ray Optics: Synergy between Laboratory and Space III, 87770J (3 May 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2019299; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2019299


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