3 May 2013 Femtosecond optical/hard X-ray timing diagnostics at an FEL: implementation and performance
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Abstract
The development of Free Electron Lasers has opened the possibility to investigate ultrafast processes using femtosecond hard x-ray pulses. In optical/x-ray light pump/probe experiments, however, the time resolution is mainly limited by the ability to synchronize both light sources over a long distance (<100 fs FWHM) rather than their pulse length (<10 fs FWHM). We have implemented a spectrally encoding x-ray to optical laser timing diagnostic into the XPP beamline at LCLS with a timing uncertainty down to 10 fs. An x-ray induced change of refractive index in a solid target is temporally probed for single pulses by a chirped white light pulse [4]. By resorting single shot data to the timestamps obtained by the diagnostics, the temporal data quality can be improved to basically pulse length limited time resolution. By interchangable targets and adjustable x-ray and laser foci, the method was successfully applied for very different x-ray parameters. These are different photon energies in the range of 6-20 keV, which at LCLS also includes application of 3rd Harmonic radiation, pulse energy, and bandwidth, when using a Si(111) monochromator.
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Henrik T. Lemke, Matt Weaver, Matthieu Chollet, Joseph Robinson, James M. Glownia, Diling Zhu, Mina R. Bionta, Marco Cammarata, Marion Harmand, Ryan N. Coffee, David M. Fritz, "Femtosecond optical/hard X-ray timing diagnostics at an FEL: implementation and performance", Proc. SPIE 8778, Advances in X-ray Free-Electron Lasers II: Instrumentation, 87780S (3 May 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2017603; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2017603
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