7 May 2013 Ultra-intense laser neutron generation through efficient deuteron acceleration
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Experiments at the HERCULES laser facility, originally reported by C. Zulick, et al in Applied Physics Letters (2013), have produced neutron beams with energies up to 16:8(±0:3) MeV using 7 3Li(d,n)8 4Be reactions. These efficient deuteron reactions required the selective acceleration of deuterons through the introduction of a deuterated plastic or cryogenically frozen D2O layer on the surface of a thin film target. It was shown that a optimized frozen D2O layer, formed in situ, yielded the highest efficiency deuteron acceleration with deuterons constituting over 99% of the accelerated light ions. The deuteron signal was optimized with respect to the delay between the heavy water deposition and laser pulse arrival, as well as the temperature of the target. A total conversion efficiency of laser energy to neutron energy of 1(±0:5) × 10−5 was obtained. The simulated neutron signal was found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental spectra. The scattering of neutrons through shielding and target materials was investigated with MCNPX and determined to have a small effect on the observed neutron energies.
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C. Zulick, C. Zulick, F. Dollar, F. Dollar, V. Chvykov, V. Chvykov, J. Davis, J. Davis, G. Kalinchenko, G. Kalinchenko, A. Maksimchuk, A. Maksimchuk, G. M. Petrov, G. M. Petrov, A. Raymond, A. Raymond, A. G. R. Thomas, A. G. R. Thomas, L. Willingale, L. Willingale, V. Yanovsky, V. Yanovsky, K. Krushelnick, K. Krushelnick, "Ultra-intense laser neutron generation through efficient deuteron acceleration", Proc. SPIE 8779, Laser Acceleration of Electrons, Protons, and Ions II; and Medical Applications of Laser-Generated Beams of Particles II; and Harnessing Relativistic Plasma Waves III, 87790N (7 May 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2019086; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2019086


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