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7 May 2013 Low-power nanophotonics: material and device technology
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Development in photonics for communications and interconnects pose increasing requirements on reduction of footprint, power dissipation and cost, as well as increased bandwidth. Nanophotonics integrated photonics has been viewed as a solution to this, capitalizing on development in nanotechnology and an increased understanding of light matter interaction on the nanoscale. The latter can be exemplified by plasmonics and low dimensional semiconductors such as quantum dots (QDs). In this scenario the development of improved electrooptic materials is of great importance, the electrooptic polymers being an example, since they potentially offer superior properties for optical phase modulators in terms of power and integratability. Phase modulators are essential for e.g. the rapidly developing advanced modulation formats, since phase modulation basically can generate any type of modulation. The electrooptic polymers, in combination with plasmonics nanoparticle array waveguides or nanostructured hybrid plasmonic media can give extremely compact and low power dissipation modulators. Low-dimensional semiconductors, e.g. in the shape of QDs, can be employed for modulation or switching functions, offering possibilities for scaling to 2 or 3 dimensions for advanced switching functions. In both the high field confinement plasmonics and QDs, the nanosizing is due to nearfield interactions, albeit being of different physical origin in the two cases. Epitaxial integration of III-V structures on Si plays an important role in developing high-performance light sources on silicon, eventually integrated with silicon electronics. A brief remark on all-optical vs. electronically controlled optical switching systems is also given.
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Lars Thylén, Petter Holmstrom, Lech Wosinski, and Sebastian Lourdudoss "Low-power nanophotonics: material and device technology", Proc. SPIE 8781, Integrated Optics: Physics and Simulations, 87810Q (7 May 2013);

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